The Central Archive of Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS) houses, takes care of and provides access for researchers to records of SAS' predecessors, namely Šafárik's Learned Society (Slovak: Šafárikova učená spoločnosť; first documents from 1926), Slovak Learned Society (Slovak: Slovenská učená spoločnosť; first documents from 1938), Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts (Slovak: Slovenská akadémia vied a umení; first documents from 1942) and Arts & Science Council (Slovak: Umelecká a vedecká rada; first documents from 1945). It provides the same treatment to the documents of the SAS itself, namely its managing body, its scientific research units and service units and its scientific societies.
The Central Archive also preserves various collections of photographs, audio and video records that points to the scientific research conducted by SAS. A collection of medals, plaquettes and other awards and accolades granted to Slovak scientists and scientific organisations and a collection of scientific journals and monographs are also in custody of the Archive. By creating a system of reference through inventories and lists and developing finding aids for researchers the Archive aims to add to a basis of historical sources that will be useful for research and scholarship on forms of organisation of science, on history of research in various scientific disciplines, on archival theory, and will also satisfy the administrative needs of the Academy. The most significant and unique in terms of Slovak archival science is its agenda regarding the documentation of Slovak scientists.